These are many and varied and derive mainly from a poor understanding of the real requirement and a lack of confidence-building metrics. Typical results are:
- Failure to gain project approvals.
- Failure to negotiate contracts.
- Cost overruns.
- Time overruns.
- Performance failures.
- Poor initial support arrangements.
- Poor in-service support decisions.
Anyone who thinks that such things will never happen to them should read the CHAOS report published by the US Standish Group.